Entre las glándulas de secreción externa, en la cabeza se encuentran las glándulas lactíferas (hipofaríngeas y supracerebrales) que producen la jalea real con que alimentan a la reina y la cría.
Paralelamente con esta atrofia, comienzan a desarrollarse las glándulas productoras de cera.
Una colonia para producir un kilogramo de cera, necesita consumir más de 10 kilogramos de miel.
Es frecuente ver cantidad de abejas en el frente de la colmena con el abdomen levantado dejando expuesta esta glándula de color blanquecino y batiendo fuertemente las alas.
En las obreras y en la reina encontramos el aparato vulnerador. Está formado por un par de glándulas: una que secreta una solución ácida y otra de reacción alcalina. Tienen forma de saco alargado y se unen en la “bolsa venenífera”. Allí también descarga otra glándula que produce una sustancia lubricante y todo el conjunto termina en el aguijón propiamente dicho.
SYSTEM GLANDS OF BEES
The queen, the lactífera gland secretes pheromones that control the behavior of the family. It holds together the individuals of the same hive and inhibits the position of the workers.
It gland is highly developed. It also has a gland and other alkaline acid in the infringing device. This is of great importance as from alkaline secretion gland, the eggs are coated with a sticky substance which sticks to the bottom of the cell.
The workers also have a complex glandular system. The development of various glands in the working is responsible for the changing roles throughout her life as an adult insect.
Among the external secretion glands in the head are the lactiferous glands (hypopharyngeal and supracerebrales) that produce royal jelly to feed the queen and brood.
Arranged around the brain consist of a large number of secretory cells. In young workers are globose. Royal jelly secretion is associated with the digestion of honey and pollen. So often, when the entry of food decreases the hive or if any internal parasitism is jelly production decreases significantly affecting the overall development of the family. The maximum discharge is between the 8th and 12th day of life of the bee. These glands begin to decrease production to be negligible. At that time the glands become small and cramped.
In parallel with this atrophy, wax-producing glands begin to develop.
These are housed in the ventral part of the last five abdominal segments. There are four pairs that between days 12 to 20 acquire glandular structure. These glands are simply specialized parts of the epidermis. The wax is secreted into bags or cereros shaped pockets of fluid through pores.
This, in contact with air, solidifies quickly semitransparent flake shaped. To become operational, it is closely linked to the availability of food (honey and pollen).
A colony to produce one kilogram of wax, you need to consume more than 10 kilograms of honey.
From the twentieth day life of the bee these glands atrophy and low production of fatty acids. Then they degenerate glands becoming a flattened layer of cells.
Also in the abdomen, but in the back area, the scent gland (Nasanoff) is housed.
Emits the particular and distinctive of each family of bees smell. Through it are recognized individuals within the same hive, it serves to guide the young workers in their first flights during swarming to give cohesion to swarm, and to mark the position of the hive to virgin queens departing on flights guidance and fertilization.
It is common to see many bees in front of the hive exposing the abdomen raised whitish gland and heavily flapping wings.
In the workers and the queen we found the infringing device. It consists of a pair of glands: one that secretes an acidic solution and another alkaline reaction. They have an elongated jacket and join in the "venenífera bag". There also discharges and the whole sting ends in another gland itself produces a lubricating substance.
The sting consists of a pair of stilettos or chitin sawn surface lancets are within a pod. When the sting is nailed, lancets move rapidly driven by powerful muscles.
For penetrate the human skin, the pens are locked in the epidermis and can not be removed by the bee. When it tries to fly, all the infringing device (bag of poison, muscles, etc.) appears and after a few hours the bee dies. Muscles continue operating the lancets and continue to introduce the poison. Therefore it is necessary to act quickly and remove the sting from the base.
The combination of acidic and alkaline glands, resulting in a very active poison capable of serious disorders in the human body, despite its tiny amount (0.3 mg).
Finally we describe the salivary glands. There are a couple located in the head and another in the ventral part of the chest. All the salivary flow at the base lip mouthparts. They secrete enzymes for nectar sugars unfold.